Plasmonic nanostructures are widely studied and used because of their useful size, shape, composition and assembled structure-based plasmonic properties. It is, however, highly challenging to precisely design, reproducibly synthesize and reliably utilize plasmonic nanostructures with enhanced optical properties. Here, we devise a facile synthetic method to generate Au surface roughness-controlled nanobridged nanogap particles (Au-RNNPs) with ultrasmall (approximate to 1 nm) interior gap and tunable surface roughness in a highly controllable manner. Importantly, we found that particle surface roughness can be associated with and enhance the electromagnetic field inside the interior gap, and stronger nanogap-enhanced Raman scattering (NERS) signals can be generated from particles by increasing particle surface roughness. The finite-element method-based calculation results support and are matched well with the experimental results and suggest one needs to consider particle shape, nanogap and nanobridges simultaneously to understand and control the optical properties of this type of nanostructures. Finally, the potential of multiplexed Raman detection and imaging with RNNPs and the high-speed, high-resolution Raman bio-imaging of Au-RNNPs inside cells with a wide-field Raman imaging setup with liquid crystal tunable filter are demonstrated. Our results provide strategies and principles in designing and synthesizing plasmonically enhanced nanostructures and show potential for detecting and imaging Raman nanoprobes in a highly specific, sensitive and multiplexed manner.