We examined the effects of professional autonomy and group cohesion on the organizational commitment of research and development (RD) professionals, taking into account the moderating role of job complexity in this relationship. Participants were 264 full-time researchers who each had over 5 years' tenure at an international information technology institute in South Korea, and who completed surveys assessing their professional autonomy, group cohesion, and job complexity. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that professional autonomy, group cohesion, and job complexity positively affected organizational commitment. Moreover, job complexity had a positive moderating effect on the relationship between professional autonomy and group cohesion in connection with organizational commitment. These findings clarify the psychological attitude of RD professionals in relation to professional autonomy, group cohesion, and job complexity.