Bacteriorhodopsin is a membrane bound protein of halobacterium, which has a potential to be used for constructing molecular electron device and optical computers. In this study, the effects of glycerol and growth conditions on the production of bacterorhodopsin by Halobacterium halobium R1 were examined. Glycerol stimulated cell growth, and the final cell concentration increased with increasing glycerol concentration. The pH of the culture increased from 7 to 8 during growth. Varying the initial pH between 6 and 8 had little effect on the cell growth. When the dissolved oxygen level was high, cell growth was enhanced but the percentage of bacteriorhodopsin was lower (1.25%) than that (2.1%) under low dissolved oxygen level. It was concluded that growing cells to a high concentration prior to inducing bacteriorhodopsin formation was important to increase bacteriorhodopsin productivity.