Algal technology has potential to combat the global energy crisis, malnutrition, and production of several value added products useful for the mankind. The cost effective cultivation system is the basis to realize this goal. Microalgal production in raceway ponds seems to be most promising, especially in the large scale. Several environmental (location of the cultivation system, rainfall, solar radiation, etc.), engineering (pond depth, CO2 delivery system, methods of mixing, power consumption, etc.), and biological (light, pH, oxygen accumulation, salinity, Algal predators etc.) parameters affect the biomass productivity in the open pond system. Vertical mixing is an important criteria influencing the algal growth compared to axial mixing as it determines the frequency by which cell will travel from bottom (dark zone) to surface (light zone) of the open pond. Therefore, different research works on the various designs of raceway ponds were mostly focused towards enhancing the vertical mixing (e.g. Design of bend and surface geometry, engineering flow field, etc.) and CO2 residence time (e.g. Closed, sump, airlift driven raceway ponds etc.). The present study summarizes the current state of knowledge for the biomass production in raceway ponds.