On-line electric vehicle (OLEV) is a new eco-friendly transportation system that collects electricity from a power cable buried beneath the road surface, allowing the system to resolve various problems associated with batteries in electric vehicles. This paper presents a finite element (FE) based thermo-mechanical analysis of precast concrete structures that are utilized in the OLEV system. An experimental study is also conducted to identify materials used for a joint filler, and the observed experimental results are applied to the FE analysis. Traffic loading and boundary conditions are modeled in accordance with the related standards and environmental characteristics of a road system. A series of structural analyses concerning various test scenarios are conducted to investigate the sensitivity of design parameters and to evaluate the structural performance of the road system.