Associations between Long-Term Exposure to Chemical Constituents of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Mortality in Medicare Enrollees in the Eastern United States

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dc.contributor.authorChung, Yeonseungko
dc.contributor.authorDominici, Francescako
dc.contributor.authorWang, Yunko
dc.contributor.authorCoull, Brent A.ko
dc.contributor.authorBell, Michelle L.ko
dc.date.accessioned2015-07-29T01:44:15Z-
dc.date.available2015-07-29T01:44:15Z-
dc.date.created2015-07-22-
dc.date.created2015-07-22-
dc.date.created2015-07-22-
dc.date.created2015-07-22-
dc.date.created2015-07-22-
dc.date.issued2015-05-
dc.identifier.citationENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES, v.123, no.5, pp.467 - 474-
dc.identifier.issn0091-6765-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10203/200244-
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Several epidemiological studies have reported that long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with higher mortality. Evidence regarding contributions of PM2.5 constituents is inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: We assembled a data set of 12.5 million Medicare enrollees (>= 65 years of age) to determine which PM2.5 constituents are a) associated with mortality controlling for previous-year PM2.5 total mass (main effect); and b) elevated in locations exhibiting stronger associations between previous-year PM2.5 and mortality (effect modification). METHODS: For 518 PM2.5 monitoring locations (eastern United States, 2000-2006), we calculated monthly mortality rates, monthly long-term (previous 1-year average) PM2.5, and 7-year averages (2000-2006) of major PM2.5 constituents [elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon matter (OCM), sulfate (SO42-), silicon (Si), nitrate (NO3-), and sodium (Na)] and community-level variables. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate location-specific mortality rates associated with previous-year PM2.5 (model level 1) and identify constituents that contributed to the spatial variability of mortality, and constituents that modified associations between previous-year PM2.5 and mortality (model level 2), controlling for community-level confounders. RESULTS: One-standard deviation (SD) increases in 7-year average EC, Si, and NO3- concentrations were associated with 1.3% [95% posterior interval (PI): 0.3, 2.2], 1.4% (95% PI: 0.6, 2.4), and 1.2% (95% PI: 0.4, 2.1) increases in monthly mortality, controlling for previous-year PM2.5. Associations between previous-year PM2.5 and mortality were stronger in combination with 1-SD increases in SO42- and Na. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposures to PM2.5 and several constituents were associated with mortality in the elderly population of the eastern United States. Moreover, some constituents increased the association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and mortality. These results provide new evidence that chemical composition can partly explain the differential toxicity of PM2.5.-
dc.languageEnglish-
dc.publisherUS DEPT HEALTH HUMAN SCIENCES PUBLIC HEALTH SCIENCE-
dc.titleAssociations between Long-Term Exposure to Chemical Constituents of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Mortality in Medicare Enrollees in the Eastern United States-
dc.typeArticle-
dc.identifier.wosid000357294000026-
dc.identifier.scopusid2-s2.0-84951278420-
dc.type.rimsART-
dc.citation.volume123-
dc.citation.issue5-
dc.citation.beginningpage467-
dc.citation.endingpage474-
dc.citation.publicationnameENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES-
dc.identifier.doi10.1289/ehp.1307549-
dc.embargo.liftdate9999-12-31-
dc.embargo.terms9999-12-31-
dc.contributor.localauthorChung, Yeonseung-
dc.contributor.nonIdAuthorDominici, Francesca-
dc.contributor.nonIdAuthorWang, Yun-
dc.contributor.nonIdAuthorCoull, Brent A.-
dc.contributor.nonIdAuthorBell, Michelle L.-
dc.description.isOpenAccessY-
dc.type.journalArticleArticle-
dc.subject.keywordPlusTIME-SERIES ANALYSIS-
dc.subject.keywordPlusAIR-POLLUTION-
dc.subject.keywordPlusMEASUREMENT ERROR-
dc.subject.keywordPlusHOSPITALIZATIONS-
dc.subject.keywordPlusCOMPONENTS-
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