Th2 cytokine IL-4 has been previously shown to suppress the production of proinflammatory cytokines in monocytes. However, the underlying molecular mechanism by which IL-4 signaling antagonizes proinflammatory responses is poorly characterized. In particular, whether IL-4 can modulate inflammasome signaling remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence that IL-4 suppresses NLRP3-dependent caspase-1 activation and the subsequent IL-1 beta secretion but does not inhibit absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2)- or NLRC4 (NOD-like receptor family, CARD domain-containing 4)-dependent caspase-1 activation in THP-1 and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or LPS/ATP stimulation, IL-4 markedly inhibited the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome, including NLRP3-dependent ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain) oligomerization, NLRP3-ASC interaction and NLRP3 speck-like oligomeric structure formation. The negative regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome by IL-4 was not due to the impaired mRNA or protein production of NLRP3 and proinflammatory cytokines. Supporting this observation, IL-4 attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activation even in reconstituted NLRP3-expressing macrophages in which NLRP3 expression is not transcriptionally regulated by TLR-NF-kappa B signaling. Furthermore, the IL-4-mediated suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome was independent of STAT6-dependent transcription and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Instead, IL-4 inhibited subcellular redistribution of NLRP3 into mitochondria and microtubule polymerization upon NLRP3-activating stimulation. Our results collectively suggest that IL-4 could suppress NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a transcription-independent manner, thus providing an endogenous regulatory machinery to prevent excessive inflammasome activation.