The fast degradation of lead selenide (PbSe) nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) in ambient conditions impedes widespread deployment of the highly excitonic, thus versatile, colloidal NQDs. Here we report a simple in situ post-synthetic halide salt treatment that results in size-independent air stability of PbSe NQDs without significantly altering their optoelectronic characteristics. From TEM, NMR, and XPS results and DFT calculations, we propose that the unprecedented size-independent air stability of the PbSe NQDs can be attributed to the successful passivation of under-coordinated PbSe(100) facets with atomically thin PbX2 (X = Cl, Br, I) adlayers. Conductive films made of halide-treated ultrastable PbSe NQDs exhibit markedly improved air stability and behave as an n-type channel in a field-effect transistor. Our simple in situ wet-chemical passivation scheme will enable broader utilization of PbSe NQDs in ambient conditions in many optoelectronic applications.