n the context of globalization, higher education has played key role in developing and building a strong, high-skilled human capital base to support the growth of globally competitive economies. At the same time, the global phenomenon of internationalization, particularly in the field of higher education, has also been recognized worldwide for its huge impact on the development of higher education systems. In response to these recognitions, this thesis examines how the higher education policy in Vietnam, a developing country in Southeast Asia, has been changed and adopted in the international dimensions since the 1990s for higher education reformation. By providing a systematic description of the internationalization process in Vietnam, which is followed by a critical assessment of the results of its policies, this thesis seeks to challenge the ongoing, and fundamental assumption behind recent higher education reformation, that internationalization is an inevitable way to solve higher education problems. It concludes that the Vietnamese government attempt to improve its higher education through internationalization is not as effective as it had hoped for.