This paper presents a hybrid (i.e., integrated passive-active) system for seismic response control of a cable-stayed bridge. Because multiple control devices are operating, a hybrid control system could alleviate some of the restrictions and limitations that exist when each system is acting alone. Lead rubber bearings are used as passive control devices to reduce the earthquake-induced forces in the bridge and hydraulic actuators are used as active control devices to further reduce the bridge responses, especially deck displacements. In the proposed hybrid control system, a linear quadratic Gaussian control algorithm is adopted as a primary controller. In addition, a secondary bang-bang type (i.e., on-off type) controller according to the responses of lead rubber bearings is considered to increase the controller robustness. Numerical simulation results show that control performances of the hybrid control system are superior to those of the passive control system and slightly better than those of the fully active control system. Furthermore, it is verified that the hybrid control system with a bang-bang type controller is more robust for stiffness perturbation than the active controller with μ-synthesis method and there are no signs of instability in the overall system whereas the active control system with linear quadratic Gaussian algorithm shows instabilities in the perturbed system. Therefore, the proposed hybrid protective system could effectively be used to seismically excited cable-stayed bridges.