Semiactive control systems have received considerable attention for protecting structures against natural hazards such as strong earthquakes and high winds, because they not only offer the reliability of passive control systems but also maintain the versatility and adaptability of fully active control systems. Among the many semiactive control devices, magnetorheological (MR) fluid dampers comprise one particularly promising class. In the field of civil engineering, much research and development on MR fluid damper-based control systems has been conducted since B. F. Spencer first introduced this unique semiactive device to civil engineering applications in mid 1990s. In 2001, MR fluid dampers were applied to the full-scale in-service civil engineering structures for the first time. This state-of-the-art paper includes a detailed literature review of control algorithms considering the characteristics of fm fluid dampers. This review provides references to semiactive control systems using MR fluid dampers. The MR fluid damper-based semiactive control systems are shown to have the potential for mitigating the responses of full-scale civil engineering structures under natural hazards.