In this study, experimental tests and an analytical approach are conducted to verify the size effect on the fiber strength of a composite pressure vessel. As an analytical method, the Weibull weakest link model and the sequential multi-step failure model are considered and mutually compared. In the case of carbon fiber tensile strength, there is no large difference between the analytical methods for the volumetric size effect. To verify the validity of the analytical approach, experimental tests were performed using fiber strand specimens, unidirectional laminate specimens and composite pressure vessels. Good agreement for fiber strength distribution was shown between the test data and predicted results. The volumetric size effect shows the clearly observed tendency towards fiber strength degradation with increasing stressed volume. Because the volumetric size effect depends on material and processing factors, the reduction of fiber strength due to the stressed volume shows different values according to the variation of material and processing conditions.