The Porosity, Acidity, and Reactivity of Dealuminated Zeolite ZSM-5 at the Single Particle Level: The Influence of the Zeolite Architecture

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A combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), focused-ion-beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM), and UV/Vis and synchrotron-based IR microspectroscopy was used to investigate the dealumination processes of zeolite ZSM-5 at the individual crystal level. It was shown that steaming has a significant impact on the porosity, acidity, and reactivity of the zeolite materials. The catalytic performance, tested by the styrene oligomerization and methanol-to-olefin reactions, led to the conclusion that mild steaming conditions resulted in greatly enhanced acidity and reactivity of dealuminated zeolite ZSM-5. Interestingly, only residual surface mesoporosity was generated in the mildly steamed ZSM-5 zeolite, leading to rapid crystal coloration and coking upon catalytic testing and indicating an enhanced deactivation of the zeolites. In contrast, harsh steaming conditions generated 550 nm mesopores, extensively improving the accessibility of the zeolites. However, severe dealumination decreased the strength of the Bronsted acid sites, causing a depletion of the overall acidity, which resulted in a major drop in catalytic activity.
Publisher
WILEY-BLACKWELL
Issue Date
2011-12
Language
English
Article Type
Article
Keywords

ATOMIC-FORCE MICROSCOPY; MOLECULAR-DIFFUSION; CATALYTIC-ACTIVITY; H-ZSM-5 CRYSTALS; CONVERSION; MICROSPECTROSCOPY; HYDROCARBON; BARRIERS; METHANOL; CRACKING

Citation

CHEMISTRY-A EUROPEAN JOURNAL, v.17, no.49, pp.13773 - 13781

ISSN
0947-6539
DOI
10.1002/chem.201101361
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/104158
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