Molecular Gauge Blocks for Building on the Nanoscale

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Molecular gauge blocks, based on 17, 911 paraxylene rings, have been synthesized as part of a homologous series of oligoparaxylenes (OPXs) with a view to providing a molecular tool box for the construction of nano architecturessuch as spheres, cages, capsules, metalorganic frameworks (MOFs), metalorganic polyhedrons (MOPs) and covalentorganic frameworks (COFs), to name but a fewof well-defined sizes and shapes. Twisting between the planes of contiguous paraxylene rings is generated by the steric hindrance associated with the methyl groups and leads to the existence of soluble molecular gauge blocks without the need, at least in the case of the lower homologues, to introduce long aliphatic side chains onto the phenylene rings in the molecules. Although soluble molecular gauge blocks with up to seven consecutive benzenoid rings have been prepared employing repeating paraxylene units, in the case of the higher homologues it becomes necessary to introduce hexyl groups instead of methyl groups onto selected phenylene rings to maintain solubility. A hexyl-doped compound with seven substituted phenylene rings was found to be an organogelator, exhibiting thermally reversible gelation and a critical gelation concentration of 10 mM in dimethyl sulfoxide. Furthermore, control over the morphology of a series of hexyl-doped OPXs to give microfibers, microaggregates, or nanofibers, was observed as a function of their lengths according to images obtained by scanning electron microscopy. The modular syntheses of the paraphenylene derivatives rely heavily on SuzukiMiyaura cross-coupling reactions. The lack of pp conjugation in these derivatives that is responsible for their enhanced solubilities was corroborated by UV/Vis and fluorescent spectroscopy. In one particular series of model OPXs, dynamic 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to probe the stereochemical consequences of having from one up to five axes of chirality present in the same molecule. The Losanitsch sequence for the compounds with 13 chiral axes was established, and a contemporary mathematical way was found to describe the sequence. The development of the ways and means to make molecular gauge building blocks will have positive repercussions on the control of nanostructures in general. Their incorporation into extended structures with the MOF-74 topology provides an excellent demonstration of the potential usefulness of these molecular gauge blocks.
Publisher
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH
Issue Date
2012-12
Language
English
Article Type
Review
Keywords

METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS; TEMPLATE-DIRECTED SYNTHESIS; DYNAMIC COVALENT CHEMISTRY; CROSS-COUPLING REACTIONS; N-HETEROCYCLIC CARBENES; SUPRAMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY; HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS; CHARGE-TRANSFER; COORDINATION; POLYHEDRA

Citation

CHEMISTRY-A EUROPEAN JOURNAL, v.18, no.49, pp.15632 - 15649

ISSN
0947-6539
DOI
10.1002/chem.201201985
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/103516
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