Binary and Ternary Doping of Nitrogen, Boron, and Phosphorus into Carbon for Enhancing Electrochemical Oxygen Reduction Activity

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N-doped carbon, a promising alternative to Pt catalyst for oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) in acidic media, is modified in order to increase its catalytic activity through the additional doping of B and Pat the carbon growth step. This additional doping alters the electrical, physical, and morphological properties of the carbon. The B-doping reinforces the sp(2)-structure of graphite and increases the portion of pyridinic-N sites in the carbon lattice, whereas P-doping enhances the charge delocalization of the carbon atoms and produces carbon structures with many edge sites. These electrical and physical alternations of the N-doped carbon are more favorable for the reduction of the oxygen on the carbon surface. Compared with N-doped carbon, B,N-doped or P,N-doped carbon shows 1.2 or 2.1 times higher ORR activity at 0.6 V (vs RHE) in acidic media. The most active catalyst In the reaction is the ternary-doped carbon (B,P,N-doped carbon), which records -6.0 mA/mg of mass activity at 0.6V (vs RHE), and it is 2.3 times higher than that of the N-doped carbon. These results imply that the binary or ternary doping of B and P with N into carbon induces remarkable performance enhancements, and the charge delocalization of the carbon atoms or number of edge sites of the carbon is a significant factor in deciding the oxygen reduction activity in carbon-based catalysts.
Publisher
AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Issue Date
2012-08
Language
English
Article Type
Article
Keywords

METAL-FREE ELECTROCATALYSTS; ELECTROLYTE FUEL-CELLS; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON; CATHODE CATALYSTS; NANOTUBES; SPECTROSCOPY; IRON; POLYANILINE; SITES; NI

Citation

ACS NANO, v.6, no.8, pp.7084 - 7091

ISSN
1936-0851
DOI
10.1021/nn3021234
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/103197
Appears in Collection
CBE-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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