We describe a simple and effective method to fabricate a uniform plastic microlens array (MLA) with high fill-factor over a large area utilizing self-aligned diffuser lithography (SADL). In order to make an intimate contact between the photomask and the positive photoresist during 3D diffuser lithography, which is crucial for obtaining a uniform MLA mold over a large area, we fabricated a self-aligned metal mask directly on top of the positive photoresist, eliminating any air gap between the metal mask and the underlying photoresist. After replication of the developed concave MLA mold onto the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a standard deviation of sag (height) of the MLA was observed by laser scanning confocal lithography. The standard deviation, which indicates uniformity, was reduced by as much as a factor of 6 by applying SADL compared with that obtained from conventional diffuser lithography. Using this method, we fabricated a 7 inch MLA sheet with excellent uniformity. The proposed method can be extensively applied for fabrication of large-size MLA sheets with plastic materials thanks to its simplicity and versatility.