Homoserine lactone (HSL) is a ubiquitous product of metabolism. It is generated by all known biota during the editing of certain mischarged aminoacyl-tRNA reactions, and is also released as a product of quorum signal degradation by bacterial species expressing acyl-HSL acylases. Little is known about its environmental fate over long or short periods of time. The mammalian enzyme paraoxonase, which has no known homologs in bacteria, has been reported to degrade HSL via a lactonase mechanism. Certain strains of Variovorax and Arthrobacter utilize HSL as a sole source of nitrogen, but not as a sole source of carbon or energy. In this study, the enrichment and isolation of four strains of soil bacteria capable of utilizing HSL as a carbon and energy source are described. Phylogenetic analysis of these isolates indicates that three are distinct members of the genus Arthrobacter, whereas the fourth clusters within the non-clinical Burkholderia. The optimal pH for growth of the isolates ranged from 6.0 to 6.5, at which their HSL-dependent doubling times ranged from 1.4 to 4 h. The biodegradation of HSL by these 4 isolates far outpaced its chemical decay. HSL degradation by soil bacteria has implications for the consortial mineralization of acyl-homoserine lactones by bacteria associated with quorum sensing populations.