The present study was to investigate the effects of in vitro fertilization conditions on in vitro development and structural integrity of pig embryos. Porcine oocytes matured in vitro were co-incubated with four different spermatozoa concentrations (0.6 x 10(5), 1.2 x 10(5), 2.5 x 10(5) and 5 x 10(5) cells/ml) for 6 h, and at a spermatozoa concentration (1.2 x 10(5) cells/ml) for 2, 4 and 6 h, respectively. Spermatozoa penetration and blastocyst formation were observed at 10 and 144 h post insemination, respectively. The allocation of a blastocyst to inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cells was determined by using a differential staining method. Polyspermy frequency increased with increasing spermatozoa concentrations. The spermatozoa-oocyte co-incubation period of 2 h provided for decreased in vitro development rate than 4 and 6h groups (P < 0.05), although no difference was detected in polyspermy frequency between spermatozoa-oocyte co-incubation periods. Interestingly, blastocysts derived from the groups with greater spermatozoa concentrations (2.5 x 10(5) and 5 x 10(5) cells/ml) had significantly fewer ICM cell nuclei as compared with those groups with lesser spermatozoa concentrations (0.6 x 10(5) and 1.2 x 10(5) cells/ml). There was no difference in the structural integrity of blastocysts among the co-incubation periods. Blastocysts derived from respective experiments were individually classified into three groups (I: < 20%; II: 20-40% and III: > 40%) based on the ratio of ICM to total cells. Proportion of blastocysts in Group II, with a presumptive normal range of structural integrity, was slightly decreased in the groups with greater spermatozoa concentrations (2.5 x 10(5) and 5 x 10(5) cells/ml). The results indicate that the spermatozoa concentration during in vitro fertilization may be important for developmental competence and quality of pig embryos. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.