For a prismatic VHTR fuel assembly, a physics study has been performed to maximize the fuel performance in terms of the cycle length and the discharge burnup for a given fuel enrichment. The relationship between the fuel performance and the fuel configurations has been investigated in terms of the TRISO packing fraction, diameter of the fuel kernel, fuel management, and moderating power of the fuel block. Both a typical low-enrichment uranium fuel (LEU) and a fuel made of transuranics (TRU) from LWR spent fuel are considered in this paper. It is shown that in order to obtain a long refueling cycle and a high burnup at the same time, the fuel loading needs to be increased together with the moderating power of the fuel block. Three ways are considered for a higher moderation of the fuel block: a larger pitch of the coolant hole pattern, an extra graphite thickness in the fuel block, and a higher graphite density. The impact of the increased pitch on the fuel temperature is also evaluated with a thermal analysis code. We have shown that long refueling cycles and high burnups can be achieved simultaneously for both LEU and TRU fuels.