In this article, we propose a localization scheme for a mobile robot based on the distance between the robot and moving objects. This method combines the distance data obtained from ultrasonic sensors in a mobile robot, and estimates the location of the mobile robot and the moving object. The movement of the object is detected by a combination of data and the object’s estimated position. Then, the mobile robot’s location is derived from the a priori known initial state. We use kinematic modeling that represents the movement of a robot and an object. A Kalman-filtering algorithm is used for addressing estimation error and measurement noise. Throughout the computer simulation experiments, the performance is verified. Finally, the results of experiments are presented and discussed. The proposed approach allows a mobile robot to seek its own position in a weakly structured environment.