A p-nitrophenol-degrading bacterial strain was isolated from industrial wastewater. This strain (NSP41(T)) was identified as a member of the genus Nocardioides from chemotaxonomic characterizations and phylogenetic inference based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The G+C content is 71.4 mol%. The diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan is LL-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone is MK-8(H-4). The cellular fatty acid profile is similar to those of Nocardioides species. 16S rDNA sequence analysis show that strain NSP41(T) is the most related to Nocardioides simplex strains with a level of nucleotide similarity of 98.6%. The levels of 16S rDNA similarity between strain NSP41(T) and other Nocardioides species ranged from 93.8 to 95.1%. This organism is distinguishable from some other Nocardioides species as well as N. simplex strains by DNA-DNA relatedness data. This organism is different from N. simplex strains in some phenotypic characteristics. Therefore, on the basis of the data presented, a new species of the genus Nocardioides, Nocardioides nitrophenolicus, is proposed. The type strain of the new species is strain NSP41(T) (= KCTC 0457BP(T)).