The thermo-mechanical responses of the composite shell structure with embedded SMA
wires are investigated using the finite element method formulated on the basis of the layerwise theory.
A nonlinear finite element procedure based on Brinson’s model is developed to investigate the
behavior of shape memory alloys (SMAs). The effects of SMAs on structure frequency and critical
buckling load are investigated. The numerical analyses show that SMAs can be the excellent passive
stiffener for the structure modification.