Whilst the importance of end-user training is recognized as a factor in the success of information systems, companies have suffered from relatively low information system training budgets and an insufficient number of trainers. However, technological innovations in computers, telecommunications and the Internet, e-learning has made it possible to overcome many constraints. In this study, we suggest an e-learning success model based on flow theory. A questionnaire-based empirical study was used to test the model. It used data from e-learners who participated in a program on Enterprise Resource Planning training with a web-based e-learning system supported by the Korea Ministry of Information and Communication. Results confirm the significant interdependent relationships between the characteristics of e-learning, flow experience, learners' attitude towards e-learning, and the resulting learning outcomes. In particular, it was revealed that flow experience plays a critical role as a central part of our research model, having direct and indirect impact on learning outcomes (i.e., the technology self-efficacy in ERP system usage in this study). This study should be of relevance to both researchers and practitioners alike, as a step towards a better understanding of e-learning, especially in the context of information system training. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.