We have studied metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of TiO2 thin films using titanium tetra-isopropoxide [TTIP,Ti(O–C3H7)4] and NH3 as a catalyst at deposition temperatures ranging from 250 to 365◦C. At deposition temperatures above 330◦C, pyrolytic self-decomposition of TTIP is dominant regardless of the use of NH3, and the activation energy for TiO2 film formation is 152 kJ/mol. At deposition temperatures below 330◦C, the films can be formed with the help of the catalytic activity of NH3, and the activation energy is reduced to 55 kJ/mol. TiO2 films deposited through the pyrolytic self-decomposition of TTIP have an anatase structure before and after performing post-deposition annealing in oxygen ambient for 30 min at 750◦C.
On the other hand, the as-deposited films formed through the catalytic reaction of TTIP with NH3 incorporate nitrogen impurities
and have microcrystallites of the rutile structure within the amorphous matrix. However, the post-deposition annealing, the
nitrogen impurities are completely removed from the films, and the films are converted into polycrystalline TiO2 films with the
rutile structure, which have a high dielectric constant of 82 and a low leakage current