Helmholtz resonators are often used to reduce noise. They are particularly useful when noise has a narrow frequency band. In this study we aim to broaden its narrow band characteristics by combining many resonators. Serial and parallel arrangements of resonators have been tested to obtain broader impedance mismatch characteristics in the broader band. Theoretical and experimental results explain these characteristics in the absence of mean flow. The serial arrangement mainly increases the peak of TL at the resonance frequency. But the parallel arrangement logarithmically increases the peak of TL and expands the bandwidth. The change of acoustic characteristics is explained by introducing an "equivalent impedance analysis." This shows that the transmission loss has a maximum value when the distance between resonators is lambda/4 of its wavelength. In this study we propose a novel design method that optimizes the arrangement of resonators while keeping the volume minimized. Various transmission loss characteristics are possible when we select different objective functions under constraints. (c) 2005 Acoustical Sociey of America.