A micromechanical damage constitutive model for discontinuous fiber-reinforced composites is developed to perform impact simulation. Progressive interfacial fiber debonding and a crack-weakened model are considered in accordance with a statistical function to describe the varying probability of damage. Emanating from a constitutive damage model for aligned fiber-reinforced composites, a micromechanical damage constitutive model for randomly oriented, discontinuous fiber-reinforced composites is developed. The constitutive damage model is then implemented into a finite element program DYNA3D to simulate the dynamic behavior and the progressive damage of composites. Finally, numerical simulations for a biaxial loading test and a four-point bend impact test of composite specimens are performed to validate the computational model and investigate impact damage evolution in discontinuous fiber-reinforced composite structures. Furthermore, in order to address the influence of Weibull parameter So on the damage evolution in composites, parametric analysis is carried out.