Microlenses and microlens arrays were fabricated using a novel fabrication technology based on the exposure of a resist (usually PMMA) to deep x-rays and subsequent thermal treatment. The fabrication technology is very simple and produces microlenses and microlens arrays with good surface roughness (less than 1 nm). The molecular weight and glass transition temperature of PMMA is reduced when it is irradiated with deep x-rays. The microlenses were produced through the effects of volume change, surface tension, and reflow during thermal treatment of irradiated PMMA. The geometry of the microlens was determined by parameters such as the x-ray dose applied to the PMMA, the diameter of the microlens, along with the heating temperature, heating time and cooling rate in the thermal treatment. Microlenses were produced with diameters ranging from 30 to 1500 mum. The modified LIGA process was used to construct not only hemispherical microlenses, but also structures that were rectangular-shaped, star-shaped, etc.