Obtaining the in-depth information of radioactive contaminants is crucial for determining the most cost-effective decommissioning strategy. The main limitations of a burial depth analysis lie in the assumptions that foreknowledge of buried radioisotopes present at the site is always available and that only a single radioisotope is present. We present an advanced depth estimation method using Bayesian inference, which does not rely on those assumptions. Thus, we identified low-level radioactive contaminants buried in a substance and then estimated their depths and activities. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, several spectra were obtained using a 3 × 3 inch hand-held NaI (Tl) detector exposed to Cs-137, Co-60, Na-22, Am-241, Eu-152, and Eu-154 sources (less than 1μCi) that were buried in a sandbox at depths of up to 15 cm. The experimental results showed that this method is capable of correctly detecting not only a single but also multiple radioisotopes that are buried in sand. Furthermore, it can provide a good approximation of the burial depth and activity of the identified sources in terms of the mean and 95% credible interval in a single measurement. Lastly, we demonstrate that the proposed technique is rarely susceptible to short acquisition time and gain-shift effects.