This paper presents the thermal and mechanical contribution of anisotropic conductive films (ACFs) to the electrical conduction establishment of ACF joint. The conduction mechanism of ACF joint strongly depends on the thermal and mechanical properties of ACF. Therefore, it is important to understand the relationship of thermal and mechanical properties of ACF in a bonding process with the electrical conduction establishment. In this study, ACF flip chip process was fully designed based on the material characterization and in situ process monitoring. Moreover, the effect of degree of cure oil the ACF conduction establishment was investigated in a bonding process window. The important mechanical mechanism of ACF conduction for good bonding quality is the joint clamping force due to curing and cooling-down processes of ACFs. The build-up behavior of z-axis shrinkage stress in ACF joint during curing and cooling-down processes of ACF materials was experimentally investigated with thermo-mechanical measurement of ACF, These results reveal that shrinkage stress in ACF joint developed during bonding process is the important parameter to establish the electrical conduction of interconnects using ACF material. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.