The effects of the fiber orientation on the penetration-resistance of an aircraft composite material are investigated through experimental and numerical simulation results. Experiments were conducted on cross-ply and quasi-isotropic composite plates with identical boundary conditions. These results are compared with the results of a numerical simulation performed using LS-DYNA. The cross-ply composite plates exhibited the maximum resistance to a low-velocity impact load, with the impactor rebounding, whereas the quasi-isotropic lay-up plates were perforated by the impactor. The FE simulation results show good agreement with the experimental data in the comparisons of the time-force curves, time-energy curves, and impact damage.