Neurons are the basic building blocks of the brain and they are connected to each other to form an electrical circuit that enables the brain to operate. Consequently, understanding the electrophysiological behavior of neurons is a fundamental approach to study brain function. Studies to understand the activity of neurons have been carried out continuously. The conventional approach is an observation of signal changes in neuronal cells through chemical or electrical stimulation. And optogenetic methods are possible to regulate neural activity through genetic modification and transformation. Recently, a method is developed and drawing attention to the researchers. The method is possible to exciting or inhibiting signals of neuronal cells through optical stimulation using nanomaterials. This dissertation deals with the improved techniques of plasmonic nanoparticle-mediated photothermal stimulation of neural activity through new nanomaterials. The new star-shaped nanoparticles improve the efficiency of inhibiting of neural activity through photothermal stimulation and improve the convenience and versatility by treating the surface of the microelectrode array chip with an optimized thickness of gold nanofilms. And measured and quantified neural signals using microelectrode array chips and reported the results of the study on the photothermal effect of various nanomaterials and consequently the regulation of in vitro cultured neuron signal.