Simple and facile preparation of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 immobilized titanium implant via initiated chemical vapor deposition technique to promote osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering application
Over the past few decades, titanium (Ti) implants have been widely used to repair fractured bones. To promote osteogenesis, immobilization of osteoinductive agents, such as recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP2), onto the Ti surface is required. In this study, we prepared rhBMP2 immobilized on glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) deposited Ti surface through initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) technique. After preparation, the bio-functionalized Ti surface was characterized by physicochemical analysis. For in vitro analysis, the developed Ti was evaluated by cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition, and real-time polymerase chain reaction to verify their osteogenic activity against human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). The GMA deposited Ti surface was found to effectively immobilize a large dose of rhBMP2 as compared to untreated Ti. Additionally, rhBMP2 immobilized on Ti showed significantly enhanced osteogenic differentiation and increased calcium deposition with nontoxic cell viability. These results clearly confirm that our strategy may provide a simple, solvent-free strategy to prepare an osteoinductive Ti surface for bone tissue engineering applications.