Single-event-upset (SEU) is becoming an increasingly important threat to the reliable operation of electronic integrated circuits. To cope with an SEU in a sequential element which is one of the most critical memory components in the ICs, many methods have been devised. However, existing methods can only restore an error that occurs in the sequential element, and they cannot deal with an error occurring in the restoration hardware itself. Furthermore, most existing methods expose an incorrect output while restoring an error, which could lead to an error in another sequential circuit. In this paper, we propose a new cost-effective transient-error correction system with real-time logic switching (RTLS) inspired from attractor-conversion characteristics of a cancer cell. A novel circuit architecture combining a sequential element with RTLS, which is totally different from those of traditional sequential elements, has been developed. The RTLS-based transient-error correction circuit can restore an SEU on any location of the circuit including the restoration hardware as far as the SEU is sustained within a typical time duration. Moreover, the RTLS-based transient-error correction system can autonomously switch its own transient-error correction logic when the circuit changes its normal state. Thus, the proposed system can restore any erroneous state to a normal state irrespective of the current state of a system, and it can also maintain a correct output while restoring an error. Based on simulation and experimental analysis in comparison with the existing methods, we have verified that the RTIS-based transient-error correction system can ensure higher reliability with lower hardware overhead.