The brain controls various cognitive functions in a robust and efficient way. What is the control architecture of brain networks that enables such robust and optimal control? Is this brain control architecture distinct from that of other complex networks? Here, we developed a framework to delineate a control architecture of a complex network that is compatible with the behavior of the network and applied the framework to structural brain networks and other complex networks. As a result, we revealed that the brain networks have a distributed and overlapping control architecture governed by a small number of control nodes, which may be responsible for the robust and efficient brain functions. Moreover, our artificial network evolution analysis showed that the distributed and overlapping control architecture of the brain network emerges when it evolves toward increasing both robustness and efficiency.