Wireless local loop (WLL) systems based on cellular, PCS and cordless phone technologies have been deployed widely in developing countries which lack basic telephony infrastructure as a bypass of wire-line local loop. In most of the developed countries, the WLL application was only limited to the remote area as an extension of existing telephone network. However, recent growth of the Internet applications has stimulated demand for a cost-effective high-speed delivery system so that WLL systems are considered as a new contender for broadband services against ISDN, Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) and cable TV. In such WLL systems, subscriber antenna might be mounted on rooftops, if not wall or ground, thereby limiting the applicability of most of the propagation models that assume a street-level receiver. Hence it is necessary to fit current propagation models to WLL-specific situations in order to predict path loss for various receiving antenna locations. In this paper WLL propagation models are presented through appropriate modification of several models in the literature. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.