Effective surface enhancement of Raman scattering (SERS) requires strong near-field enhancement as well as effective light collection of plasmonic structures. To this end, plasmonic nanoparticle (NP) arrays with narrow gaps or sharp tips have been suggested as desirable structures. We present a highly dense and uniform Au nanoscale gap array enabled by the customized design of NP shape and arrangement employing block copolymer self-assembly. Block copolymer self-assembly in thin films offers uniform hexagonally packed nanopost template arrays over the entire surface of a 2 in. wafer. Conventional evaporative metal deposition over the nanotemplate surface allows precise geometric control and positional arrangement of metal NPs, constituting tunable, strong plasmonic near-field enhancement particularly at the “hot spots” near interparticular nanoscale gaps. Underlying field distribution has been investigated by a finite-difference time-domain simulation. In the detection of thiophenol, our Au nanogap array shows a remarkable enhancement of Raman intensity greater than ∼104, a standard deviation as small as 12.3% compared to that of the planar Au thin film. In addition, adenine biomolecules can be detected with a detection limit as low as 100 nM. Our approach proposes highly sensitive and reliable SERS on the basis of a scalable, low-cost bottom-up strategy.