We report the synthesis of microporous hyper-cross-linked polymers (HCPs) with increased specific surface area and porosity by the in situ removal of trimethylsilyl (TMS) groups during hyper-cross-linking. We synthesized poly(4-trimethylsilylstyrene-co-vinylbenzyl chloride-co-divinylbenzene)s (P(TMSS-co-VBzCl-co-DVB)s) with different compositions by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer copolymerization and converted them into HCPs by reacting with FeCl3 in 1,2-dichloroethane. The nearly quantitative removal of the TMS groups was observed during the reaction following the electrophilic aromatic substitution mechanism, where the TMS group shows higher reactivity than an aromatic hydrogen. Substantial enhancement in pore characteristics including surface area, microporosity, and mesoporosity was noticed up to a certain level of TMSS incorporation, compared with HCP derived from P(VBzCl-co-DVB). We suggest the porogenic TMS group increases porosity mainly by in situ removal via facilitated substitution reaction, which creates permanent voids in the hyper-cross-linked network. The use of TMSS provides a feasible and complementary route to tuning the pore characteristics of HCPs by varying DVB content, and is applicable to the synthesis of hierarchically porous polymers containing micropores within a mesoporous framework from block polymer precursors.