Inhibition of euchromatin histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 sensitizes breast cancer cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand through reactive oxygen species-mediated activating transcription factor 4-C/EBP homologous protein-death receptor 5 pathway activation

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Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been characterized as an anti-cancer therapeutic agent with prominent cancer cell selectivity over normal cells. However, breast cancer cells are generally resistant to TRAIL, thus limiting its therapeutic potential. In this study, we found that BIX-01294, a selective inhibitor of euchromatin histone methyltransferase 2/G9a, is a strong TRAIL sensitizer in breast cancer cells. The combination of BIX-01294 and TRAIL decreased cell viability and led to an increase in the annexin V/propidium iodide-positive cell population, DNA fragmentation, and caspase activation. BIX-01294 markedly increased death receptor 5 (DR5) expression, while silencing of DR5 using small interfering RNAs abolished the TRAIL-sensitizing effect of BIX-01294. Specifically, BIX-01294 induced C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)-mediated DR5 gene transcriptional activation and DR5 promoter activation was induced by upregulation of the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase-mediated activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Moreover, inhibition of reactive oxygen species by N-acetyl-L-cysteine efficiently blocked BIX-01294-induced DR5 upregulation by inhibiting ATF4/CHOP expression, leading to diminished sensitization to TRAIL. These findings suggest that BIX-01294 sensitizes breast cancer cells to TRAIL by upregulating ATF4/CHOP-dependent DR5 expression with a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. Furthermore, combination treatment with BIX-01294 and TRAIL suppressed tumor growth and induced apoptosis in vivo. In conclusion, we found that epigenetic regulation can contribute to the development of resistance to cancer therapeutics such as TRAIL, and further studies of unfolded protein responses and the associated epigenetic regulatory mechanisms may lead to the discovery of new molecular targets for effective cancer therapy.
Publisher
WILEY
Issue Date
2018-11
Language
English
Article Type
Article
Keywords

ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM STRESS; TRAIL-INDUCED APOPTOSIS; DR5 UP-REGULATION; CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC DRUGS; BINDING PROTEIN; DOWN-REGULATION; CHOP; EXPRESSION; G9A; ROS

Citation

MOLECULAR CARCINOGENESIS, v.57, no.11, pp.1492 - 1506

ISSN
0899-1987
DOI
10.1002/mc.22872
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/246301
Appears in Collection
BiS-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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