Polypyrrole/Agarose Hydrogel-Based Bladder Volume Sensor with a Resistor Ladder Structure

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Chronic monitoring of bladder activity and urine volume is essential for patients suffering from urinary dysfunctions. However, due to the anatomy and dynamics of the bladder, chronic and precise monitoring of bladder activity remains a challenge. Here, we propose a new sensing mechanism that measures the bladder volume using a resistive ladder network with contact switches. Instead of measuring the impedance between the electrode continuously, the proposed sensor provides a digitized output ('on' or 'off') when the bladder volume reaches a certain threshold value. We present simple proof-of-concept sensors which compare the discrete-mode operation to the continuous-mode operation. In addition, by using multiple pairs of this contact-mode switch in a resistor ladder structure, we demonstrate monitoring of the bladder volume in four discrete steps using an idealized balloon and an ex vivo pig's bladder. We implemented the resistive ladder network using a conductive polypyrrole/agarose hydrogel composite which exhibits a Young's modulus comparable to that of the bladder wall. Compared to the continuous-mode operation, the proposed sensing mechanism is less susceptible to drift due to material degradation and environmental factors.
Publisher
MDPI AG
Issue Date
2018-07
Language
English
Article Type
Article
Keywords

PRESSURE SENSORS; DYSFUNCTION; ENURESIS; DESIGN; VALVE; DOGS

Citation

SENSORS, v.18, no.2288

ISSN
1424-8220
DOI
10.3390/s18072288
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/245936
Appears in Collection
EE-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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2018_Sensors_Bladder.pdf(1.2 MB)Download
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