Sodium butyrate (NaBu) is an efficient supplement for increasing recombinant protein production in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture. To elucidate the effects of NaBu on miRNA expression profile in recombinant CHO (rCHO) cells, differentially expressed miRNAs in NaBu-treated rCHO cells were assessed by NanoString nCounter analysis. This result showed that eight mature mouse miRNAs (let-7b, let-7d, miR-15b, miR-25, miR-27a, miR-99a, miR-125a-5p, and miR-125b-5p) were differentially expressed. Furthermore, quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of eight mature CHO miRNAs, annotated using a miRBase database, confirmed the transcriptomic findings. Among the potential corresponding target mRNAs for the selected mature miRNAs, seven cell growth-related target genes (e2f2, akt2, mtor, bcl-2, bim, p38a, and bmf) and five N-glycosylation-related target genes (neu1, b4galt3, gale, man1b1 and mgat4a) were selected by considering the effectiveness of NaBu on rCHO cell culture. The altered expression patterns of the 12 target mRNAs were inversely correlated with those of the selected mature miRNAs. Altogether, NanoString nCounter analysis may be useful for identifying differentially expressed miRNAs in rCHO cells.