To understand the thermal failure mechanisms of electronic devices, it is essential to measure the temperature and characterize the thermal properties of individual nanometer-scale transistors in electronic devices. Previously, scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) has been used to measure the local temperature with nanometer-scale spatial resolutions using a probe with a built-in temperature sensor. However, this type of temperature measurement requires additional equipment to process the temperature-sensing signals and expensive temperature-sensor-integrated probes fabricated by complicated MEMS processes. Here, we present a novel technique which enables the simultaneous measurement of the temperature and topography of nanostructures only with a conventional atomic force microscope (AFM) of the type commonly used for topography measurements and without any modifications of the probe and extra accessories for data acquisition. The underlying principle of the proposed technique is that the local temperature of a specimen is estimated quantitatively from the thermoreflectance of a bare silicon AFM probe that is in contact with a specimen. The temperature obtained by our technique is found to be consistent with a result obtained by SThM measurements.