Conductivity Enhancement of Nickel Oxide by Copper Cation Codoping for Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Light-Emitting Diodes

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We demonstrate a Cu(I) and Cu(II) codoped nickel(II) oxide (NiOx) hole injection layer (HIL) for solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes (HyLEDs). Codoped NiOx films show no degradation on optical properties in the visible range (400-700 nm) but have enhanced electrical properties compared to those of conventional Cu(II)-only doped NiOx film. Codoped NiOx film shows an over four times increased vertical current in comparison with that of NiOx in conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) configuration. Moreover, the hole injection ability of codoped NiOx is also improved, which has ionization energy of 5.45 eV, 0.14 eV higher than the value of NiOx film. These improvements are a consequence of surface chemical composition change in NiOx due to Cu cation codoping. More off-stoichiometric NiOx formed by codoping includes a large amount of Ni vacancies, which lead to better electrical properties. Density functional theory calculations also show that Cu doped NiO model structure with Ni vacancy contains diverse oxidation states of Ni based on both density of states and partial atomic charge analysis. Finally, HyLEDs of Cu codoped NiOx HIL have higher performance comparing with those of pristine NiOx. The current efficiency of devices with NiOx and codoped NiOx HIL are 11.2 and 15.4 cd/A, respectively. Therefore, codoped NiOx is applicable to various optoelectronic devices due to simple sol-gel process and enhanced doping efficiency.
Publisher
AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Issue Date
2018-08
Language
English
Article Type
Article
Keywords

PEROVSKITE SOLAR-CELLS; NIO THIN-FILMS; HOLE-TRANSPORTING LAYER; ELECTRONIC-STRUCTURE; OPTICAL-PROPERTIES; ROOM-TEMPERATURE; HIGH-PERFORMANCE; EFFICIENT; NANOPARTICLES; STABILITY

Citation

ACS PHOTONICS, v.5, no.8, pp.3389 - 3398

ISSN
2330-4022
DOI
10.1021/acsphotonics.8b00656
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/245628
Appears in Collection
MS-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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