Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been rapidly expanding from IT based applications to uses in electric vehicles (EVs), smart grids, and energy storage systems (ESSs), all of which require low cost, high energy density and high power density. The increasing demand for LIBs has resulted in increasing price of the lithium source, which is a major obstacle to wider application. To date, the possible depletion of lithium resources has become relevant, giving rise to the interest in Na-ion batteries (NIBs) as promising alternatives to LIBs. A lot of transition metal compounds based on conversion-alloying reaction have been extensively investigated to meet the requirement for the anodes with high energy density and long life-time. In-depth understanding the electrochemical reaction mechanisms for the transition metal compounds makes it promising negative anode for NIBs and provides feasible strategy for low cost and large-scale energy storage system in the near future.