Functionally redundant LNG3 and LNG4 genes regulate turgor-driven polar cell elongation through activation of XTH17 and XTH24

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Plant vegetative architecture is related to important traits that later influence the floral architecture involved in seed production. Leaf morphology is the primary key trait to compose plant vegetative architecture. However, molecular mechanism on leaf shape determination is not fully understood even in the model plant A. thaliana. We previously showed that LONGIFOLIA (LNG1) and LONGIFOLIA2 (LNG2) genes regulate leaf morphology by promoting longitudinal cell elongation in Arabidopsis. In this study, we further characterized two homologs of LNG1, LNG3, and LNG4, using genetic, biophysical, and molecular approaches. Single loss-of-function mutants, lng3 and lng4, do not show any phenotypic difference, but mutants of lng quadruple (lngq), and lng1/2/3 and lng1/2/4 triples, display reduced leaf length, compared to wild type. Using the paradermal analysis, we conclude that the reduced leaf size of lngq is due to decreased cell elongation in the direction of longitudinal leaf growth, and not decreased cell proliferation. This data indicate that LNG1/2/3/4 are functionally redundant, and are involved in polar cell elongation in Arabidopsis leaf. Using a biophysical approach, we show that the LNGs contribute to maintain high turgor pressure, thus regulating turgor pressure-dependent polar cell elongation. In addition, gene expression analysis showed that LNGs positively regulate the expression of the cell wall modifying enzyme encoded by a multi-gene family, xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH). Taking all of these together, we propose that LNG related genes play an important role in polar cell elongation by changing turgor pressure and controlling the activation of XTH17 and XTH24.
Publisher
SPRINGER
Issue Date
2018-05
Language
English
Article Type
Article
Keywords

XYLOGLUCAN ENDOTRANSGLUCOSYLASE/HYDROLASE GENE; ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA; ENDOTRANSGLYCOSYLASE/HYDROLASE XTH; H+-PYROPHOSPHATASE; WATER RELATIONS; LEAF-CELLS; GROWTH; EXPRESSION; EXPANSION; FAMILY

Citation

PLANT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, v.97, no.1-2, pp.23 - 36

ISSN
0167-4412
DOI
10.1007/s11103-018-0722-0
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/242411
Appears in Collection
BS-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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