The modulation of a cell signaling process using a molecular binder followed by an analysis of the cellular response is crucial for understanding its role in the cellular function and developing pharmaceuticals. Herein, we present the modulation of the ERK2-mediated signaling pathway through the cytosolic delivery of a native regulatory protein for ERK2, that is, PEA-15 (phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes, 15kDa), and its engineered variants using a bacterial toxin-based delivery system. Based on biochemical and structural analyses, PEA-15 variants with different phosphorylation sites and a high affinity for ERK2 were designed. Semi-rational approach led to about an 830-fold increase in the binding affinity of PEA-15, resulting in more effective modulation of the ERK2-mediated signaling. Our approach enabled an understanding of the cellular function of the ERK2-mediated signaling process and the effect of PEA-15 phosphorylation on its action as an ERK2 blocker. We demonstrated the utility and potential of our approach by showing an efficient cytosolic delivery of these PEA-15 variants and the effective suppression of cell proliferation through the inhibition of the ERK2 function. The present approach can be used broadly for modulating the cell signaling processes and understanding their roles in cellular function, as well as for the development of therapeutics.