Aromatic polyesters are widely used plastics currently produced from petroleum. Here we engineer Escherichia coli strains for the production of aromatic polyesters from glucose by one-step fermentation. When the Clostridium difficile isocaprenoyl-CoA: 2-hydroxyisocaproate CoA-transferase (HadA) and evolved polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase genes are overexpressed in a D-phenyllactate-producing strain, poly(52.3 mol% 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB)-co-47.7 mol% D-phenyllactate) can be produced from glucose and sodium 3HB. Also, various poly(3HB-co-D-phenyllactate) polymers having 11.0, 15.8, 20.0, 70.8, and 84.5 mol% of D-phenyllactate are produced from glucose as a sole carbon source by additional expression of Ralstonia eutropha beta-ketothiolase (phaA) and reductase (phaB) genes. Fed-batch culture of this engineered strain produces 13.9 g l(-1) of poly(61.9 mol% 3HB-co-38.1 mol% D-phenyllactate). Furthermore, different aromatic polyesters containing D-mandelate and D-3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropionate are produced from glucose when feeding the corresponding monomers. The engineered bacterial system will be useful for one-step fermentative production of aromatic polyesters from renewable resources.