We describe recent advances in soft electronic interface technologies for neuroscience research. Here, low modulus materials and/or compliant mechanical structures enable modes of soft, conformal integration and minimally invasive operation that would be difficult or impossible to achieve using conventional approaches. We begin by summarizing progress in electrodes and associated electronics for signal amplification and multiplexed readout. Examples in large-area, surface conformal electrode arrays and flexible, multifunctional depth-penetrating probes illustrate the power of these concepts. A concluding section highlights areas of opportunity in the further development and application of these technologies.