Flexible transparent electrode materials such as conducting polymers, silver nanowires, carbon nanotubes and graphenes are being investigated as possible replacements for conventional brittle inorganic electrodes. However, they have critical drawbacks of low work function (WF), resulting in a high hole injection barrier to an overlying semiconducting layer in simplified organic or organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite light-emitting diodes (OLEDs or PeLEDs). Here, we report a new anode material (AnoHIL) that has multifunction of both an anode and a hole injection layer (HIL) as a single layer. The AnoHIL has easy WF tunability up to 5.8 eV and thus makes ohmic contact without any HIL. We applied our anodes to simplified OLEDs, resulting in very high efficiency (62% ph el(-1) for single and 88% ph el(-1) for tandem). The AnoHIL showed a similar tendency in simplified PeLEDs, implying universal applicability to various optoelectronics. We also demonstrated large-area flexible lightings using our anodes. Our results provide a significant step toward the next generation of high-performance simplified indium tin oxide (ITO)-free light-emitting diodes.