A monoclonal antibody, 170A1, which recognizes a nucleolar peptide of molecular weight 90,000, was raised. The protein was conserved among various vertebrates. To characterize the antigen, we screened a human fetal liver expression library using the monoclonal antibody as a probe. Molecular analyses of immunopositive clones suggested the presence of a novel cDNA. It appeared to be a single-copy gene and encoded about 4- and 5-kb mRNAs. The gene appeared to be expressed in every cell tested so far. Its deduced amino acid sequence revealed an overall homology to recently described yeast SKI2. The SKI2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoded a nucleolar protein that is involved in the antiviral system, We report here the partial human cDNA sequence and the localization of the corresponding gene on chromosome 6p21. (C) 1995 Academic Press, Inc.