As a futuristic diagnosis platform, breath analysis is gaining much attention because it is a noninvasive, simple, and low cost diagnostic method. Very promising clinical applications have been demonstrated for diagnostic purposes by correlation analysis between exhaled breath components and specific diseases. In addition, diverse breath molecules, which serve as biomarkers for specific diseases, are precisely identified by statistical pattern recognition studies. To further improve the accuracy of breath analysis as a diagnostic tool, breath sampling, biomarker sensing, and data analysis should be optimized. In particular, development of high performance breath sensors, which can detect biomarkers at the ppb-level in exhaled breath, is one of the most critical challenges. Due to the presence of numerous interfering gas species in exhaled breath, selective detection of specific biomarkers is also important.